Will Fleming's Software blog

Twitter GitHub
Home

Drawing Tilemaps on an HTML Canvas with Reason

17 Jun 2018

I was curious about using Reason to draw 2D tilemaps in the browser using a Canvas element. If you need an overview of tiles, tilemaps, etc. there is a great introduction over at developer.mozilla.org.

We will end up drawing this level of what could be a roguelike game, with an adventurer, monsters, and treasure chests:

A full project with the source code is available here.

Sprites

We will be using a sprite atlas modified from this Angband tileset with a permissive license. It looks like this:

Sprite Atlas

The level data is stored in a list, each number represents the index of the sprite atlas to use when drawing that tile.

     let tiles = [ 
          2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 
          2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 5, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 
          2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 
          2, 1, 1, 4, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0, 2, 1, 2,
          2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 1, 2, 
          2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 
          2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 
          0, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 
          0, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 2, 
          0, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 
          0, 2, 1, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 
          0, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 
          0, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 
          0, 0, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 5, 1, 2, 
          0, 0, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 
          0, 0, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2 
        ];

Working with the DOM

Reason (and BuckleScript) allows us to write type safe code to work with the browser DOM, but we will need to write some code for the interop. You could just use bs.raw and use JavaScript directly, but doing it this way will provide some type safety and let you catch some errors at compile time instead of runtime.

Note: If you need to work with the DOM you should use the excellent bs-webapi library instead. The code below is just something I used for learning Reason/JavaScript interop.

module Window = {
  type t;
  [@bs.val] external t : t = "window";

  [@bs.send]
  external addEventListener : (t, string, unit => unit) => unit =
    "addEventListener";
};

module Document = {
  type t;
  [@bs.val] external t : t = "document";
};

module HtmlImageElement = {
  type t;
  [@bs.new] external make : unit => t = "Image";

  [@bs.set] external setSrc : (t, string) => unit = "src";

  [@bs.send]
  external addEventListener : (t, string, unit => unit) => unit =
    "addEventListener";

  /* Create a html <img> element, and return a promise that resolves when the */
  /* image has finished loading. */
  let loadFromSrc = imageSrc => {
    let imageEl = make();

    let loadImagePromise =
      Js.Promise.make((~resolve, ~reject) => {
        addEventListener(imageEl, "load", () => resolve(. imageEl));
        addEventListener(imageEl, "error", () =>
          reject(. Invalid_argument("Could not load image: " ++ imageSrc))
        );
      });

    setSrc(imageEl, imageSrc);
    loadImagePromise;
  };
};

module Canvas = {
  type t;
  [@bs.send]
  external getElementById : (Document.t, string) => t = "getElementById";
};

module Context = {
  type t;

  /* JavaScript equivalent: canvas.getContext('2d'); */
  [@bs.send]
  external getContext2d : (Canvas.t, [@bs.as "2d"] _) => t = "getContext";

  [@bs.send]
  external drawImage :
    (
      t,
      ~image: HtmlImageElement.t,
      ~dx: int,
      ~dy: int,
      ~dWidth: int,
      ~dHeight: int,
      ~sx: int,
      ~sy: int,
      ~sWidth: int,
      ~sHeight: int
    ) =>
    unit =
    "drawImage";
};

SpriteAtlas

The sprite atlas is an image with all the sprites in it, it looks like:

Sprite Atlas

This code allows us to load the atlas into memory and draw one of the sprites into the context.

module SpriteAtlas = {
  type t = {
    imageElement: HtmlImageElement.t,
    spriteWidth: int,
  };

  let make = (src: string, spriteWidth: int) =>
    HtmlImageElement.loadFromSrc(src)
    |> Js.Promise.then_(imageElement =>
         Js.Promise.resolve({imageElement, spriteWidth})
       );

  let drawSprite = (~atlas: t, ~ctx, ~atlasNumber, ~x, ~y) =>
    Context.drawImage(
      ctx,
      ~image=atlas.imageElement,
      ~dx=atlasNumber * atlas.spriteWidth,
      ~dy=0, /*  In this code we only support atlases with a single row of images */
      ~dWidth=atlas.spriteWidth,
      ~dHeight=atlas.spriteWidth,
      ~sx=x,
      ~sy=y,
      ~sWidth=atlas.spriteWidth,
      ~sHeight=atlas.spriteWidth,
    );
};

Tilemap

The tilemap describes what our level looks like, it has a reference to a sprite atlas and a number of rows and columns representing what to draw in the level.

module TileMap = {
  type t = {
    atlas: SpriteAtlas.t,
    numRows: int,
    numCols: int,
    tileSize: int, /* pixels */
    tiles: list(int) /* Maybe should be an array so it is mutable? */
  };

  let make = (~atlas, ~numRows, ~numCols, ~tileSize, ~tiles) => {
    atlas,
    numRows,
    numCols,
    tileSize,
    tiles,
  };

  /* Given an index in a tilemap, get the row and column as if it was a 2D array */
  let getRowAndColumn = (idx: int, tilemap: t) : (int, int) => {
    let col: int = idx mod tilemap.numCols;
    let row: int =
      Js.Math.floor(float_of_int(idx) /. float_of_int(tilemap.numCols));
    (row, col);
  };

  let render = (ctx: Context.t, tilemap: t) =>
    List.iteri(
      (i, num) => {
        let (row, col) = getRowAndColumn(i, tilemap);
        SpriteAtlas.drawSprite(
          ~atlas=tilemap.atlas,
          ~ctx,
          ~atlasNumber=num,
          ~x=col * tilemap.tileSize,
          ~y=row * tilemap.tileSize,
        );
      },
      tilemap.tiles,
    );
};

Drawing the tilemap

Here we do the actual work. Setup the canvas, load the sprites, create a tilemap, then render it in the browser.

let doWindowOnload = () => {
  let canvas: Canvas.t = Canvas.getElementById(Document.t, "demo");
  let ctx: Context.t = Context.getContext2d(canvas);
  SpriteAtlas.make("./tiles16.png", 16)
  |> Js.Promise.then_(atlas => {
     let tiles = [ 
          2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 
          2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 5, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 
          2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 
          2, 1, 1, 4, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0, 2, 1, 2,
          2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 1, 2, 
          2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 
          2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 
          0, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 
          0, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 2, 
          0, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 
          0, 2, 1, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 
          0, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 
          0, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 
          0, 0, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 5, 1, 2, 
          0, 0, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 
          0, 0, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2 
        ]; 

       let tilemap = 
         TileMap.make(~atlas, ~numRows=16, ~numCols=16, ~tileSize=16, ~tiles);

       TileMap.render(ctx, tilemap);

       Js.Promise.resolve();
     })
  |> Js.Promise.catch(err => {
       Js.log2("Failure!", err);
       Js.Promise.resolve();
     })
  |> ignore;
};

Window.addEventListener(Window.t, "load", doWindowOnload);


View More Blog Posts